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The growing interest in natural products stems from their potential therapeutic advantages and minimal side effects. Essential tools in maximizing their benefits are Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) and High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), which enable a thorough analysis of herbal molecules. This article reviews studies utilizing GC-MS and HPLC to investigate the chemical complexity and pharmacological activities of natural products. GC-MS is pivotal in identifying volatile compounds, unveiling bioactive components like terpenes, phenols, and fatty acids in essential oils. HPLC, known for high resolution, plays a key role in detecting and quantifying specific bioactive compounds, such as flavonoids and alkaloids, in herbal extracts. Integration of techniques like HPLC-MS/MS, TLC, HPTLC, molecular networking, NMR, and tandem MS has ushered in a new era of herbal analysis, elucidating complex chemical structures and enhancing our understanding of herbal extracts. These advanced analytical methods are crucial in the ongoing quest for novel therapeutics, shaping the landscape of natural products research, endorsing evidence-based herbal medicine practices, and advancing modern medicine.Top of Form
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