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An English solicitor, Jeremy Bentham, disdained the unregulated use of livestock, in the literature of 1780, which cast doubt on the inability to pay morale to animals. Animal experiment was fundamental to scientific science during his life, but it has also been a question of heated popular and intellectual discourse from decades. Since then, general understanding and attitudes have strengthened against the unethical or cruel application of animals for research purposes. Russell & Burch provided in 1959 the principles set out during UFAW of the clinical lab method. The alternative measures, replacements, or non-animal steps shall be used as alternatives for live animal methods, or methods of measurement without live animal use. The term 'alternative' refers to approaches or strategies that substitute the overall use of laboratory animals, minimize the number of animals used, or enhance a current system or technology to reduce animal stress. In recent years, the creation of alternatives to animals has been accelerated by designing projects with the intention of developing and introducing alternatives. This report summarizes the key potential approaches to animal science. An integrated use of these techniques will offer an insight into the minimal use of animals for experimental research.


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How to Cite
Imtiyaz Ansari, Nitesh Gupta, & Abhaykumar Yadav. (2021). A review on: Alternatives to animal experimental models. International Journal of Research in Phytochemistry and Pharmacology, 11(2), 1-7.